Arctic News Archives - People and Expeditions
A collection of older (2003-2004)
news items that relate to people, expeditions, and government issues
in the Arctic. All links will take you to sites outside of PRISM. Use
your back button to return.
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- December 31, 2004 -
Russian Polar Explorers Celebrate New Year. - Novosti
explorers in both the Arctic and Antarctic have plans for gift-giving
and satellite communications to celebrate the New Year.
- December 24, 2004 -
Santa Workshop Said Under Threat from North Pole Thaw - Yahoo!
Santa may have
to move his workshop from the North Pole because global warming is
thawing the ice beneath his elves' and reindeers' feet.
- December 17, 2004 -
Danish Prince Frederik Heads for Another Arctic Dog Sled Trek
- National Post (Canada)
Prince Frederik will go to Greenland to join a dog-sled expedition
that is re-enacting an expedition led by Danish explorers nearly a
- December 5, 2004 -
A Stitch In Time Saved America's First Settlers - SFGate
years ago people from Siberia probably came across a now-sunken land
bridge to populate North America, but they probably wouldn't have
survived without the simple sewing needle. What might be the world's
oldest sewing needle has been found at a Russian archaeological site.
- November 29, 2004 -
Feeling The Heat... - Economic Times (Reuters)
aim to team up with tropical islanders in a campaign against global
warming, arguing that polar bears and palm-fringed beaches stand to
suffer the most.
- November 25, 2004 -
Letters Show Feds Playing Hardball With Aboriginals Delaying Arctic
Pipeline - Yahoo!
by The Canadian Press suggest that Ottawa is threatening to walk away
from all talks with the Deh Cho First Nations who oppose the Mackenzie
Valley Gas Pipeline. This tactic would cost the Deh Cho dearly by
delaying payments for energy activity already occurring on their land.
- November 25, 2004 -
Two Russians Intend to Cross Arctic Ocean in a Dog-Drawn Sledge
plan to be the first to cross the Arctic Ocean in a sledge drawn by
dogs. They plan to start in February, 2005.
- November 24, 2004 -
As Ice Melts, Arctic People At Loss For Words - MSNBC
of the Arctic indigenous natives do not include the words for many
of species and weather conditions now being seen in that area.
- November 24, 2004 -
Arctic States Agree To Vague Plan to Slow Thaw - ENN
countries, including the United States, encouraged "effective Measures"
to adapt to climate change, but did not come to any agreements as
to which measures to adopt. Environmentalists were not pleased with
the vagueness of the policy document. (See similar
story from Houston Chronicle.)
- Nov. 13, 2004 -
US Urged To Help Slow Arctic Thaw - BBC
At a conference
in Iceland, indigenous people of the Arctic have asked the United
States to cut greenhouse gas emissions to slow the thaw of polar ice.
They warned that their way of life was being endangered and castigated
Bush for his refusal to sign the Kyoto Protocol.
- Nov. 12, 2004 -
Canadian Military Plans Massive Arctic Exercise - China Economic
will conduct a massive exercise to prepare themselves to cope with
an environmental disaster should it occur in the Mackenzie Delta.
Many energy companies have been exploring this area to determine if
it is feasible to resume drilling in the Beaufort sea or to establish
oil and gas pipelines.
- October/November, 2004
Denizens Feel The Heat - NWF
is adversely affecting wildlife and human communities, especially
in the Arctic. For many changes in the sea ice are particularly devastating.
The polar bear is already in trouble.
- October 17, 2004 - Polar
Bear Migration Draws Tourists To Canadian Town - Post Gazette
The town of
Churchill, Manitoba is right in the middle of the migration route
of polar bears. Many tourists come to see the hundreds of bears that
pass by during the late fall.
- October 15, 2004 - Wiping
Snow Off Greenland's Oldest Ski - IOL
A piece of
wood unearthed in southern Greenland in 1997 appears to be part of
a ski used by Norsemen over 1000 years ago.
- October 14, 2004 - Falcon
Tracker Finds Foul Environment - Planet Ark
who tracks peregrine falcons is concerned about the loss of the birds'
habitat in the ANWR if oil companies open it for drilling. He likens
the area to the Oklahoma Land Rush with oil companies positioning
themselves for the opening.
- October 11, 2004 - Denmark
To Claim North Pole - ENN
send a team to show that the seabed under the North Pole is a natural
continuation of Greenland. They plan to claim the area and do oil
and gas drilling there as warming melts the ice in the area.
- October 10, 2004 - ...Pollution
Fears Threaten Tribal Way of Life - Boston News
Elders of tribes
along the Bering Coast are warning that fish stocks in Kokechik Bay
are highly polluted. They warn this type of pollution may have far-reaching
effects on the fishing industries. The Bering Sea is the home to 50%
of commercial fish stock for the US.
- September 29, 2004 -
Melting Glacier Erodes Greenland Tourism - Taipei Times
are quite concerned about the report that the Sermeq Kujalleq glacier
had receded more than 5 km in the past two years. The community depends
heavily on tourists who come to see the glacier calve into icebergs.
- September 27, 2004 -
Arctic Drilling As Divisive As Issues Get - Sacramento Bee
Bush and Kerry
appear to be widely divided in their positions about whether the Arctic
National Wildlife Refuge should be opened to oil and gas drilling.
Their positions are outlined here by a political analyst.
- September 19, 2004 - Bush
Accused of Blocking Arctic Report - Arab News
An Arctic leader
has told the Senate Commerce Committee that President Bush is trying
to bury an international report that contains recommendations of the
impact of global warning on the people of the Arctic. She said State
Department officials are blocking the release of one of two reports
that were to be presented to government ministers from eight Arctic
nations at a meeting Nov. 9 in Reykjavik, Iceland
- September 11, 2004 - Polar
Bear Injures Russian Explorer - Novosti
in Franz Joseph Land was attacked and wounded by a polar bear, but
will recover. (Map
of Franz Joseph Land from Encarta.)
- September 9, 2004 - Flags
of Russia, St. Petersburg Flown Over Arctic Drifting Station -
polar researchers have been safely delivered to a spot on the ice
over the North Pole. A research & living complex was built on
the sea ice for the team which will remain at the station for several
story from Novosti.)
- September 9, 2004 - Ice
Patch Finds Keep Amazing Archaeologists - CBC North
artifacts have been located in this summer's excavation in the Kulaine
region of the high Arctic.
- September 9, 2004 - Arctic
Science Mission Faces Cold War-Style Hurdles - Yahoo!
opportunity to place U.S. instruments in Russian waters off Cape Dezhnev
to monitor climate change required repeated proposals to the Russian
authorities and many delays before permission was granted. (Map
of Cape Dezhnev from Audubon Society).
- September 5, 2004 - Russian-US
Expedition Leaving for Laptev Sea - Novosti
A joint Russian-US
expedition has headed to the Laptev Sea to install three autonomous
stations that will monitor various aspects of climate in the Arctic.
(Map from Encarta showing Laptev Sea.)
- September 3, 2004 - Explorers
Prepare for Ski-Sail Trip To Arctic - AZ Central
and Liv Arnesen, former teachers, are preparing another expedition.,
this time to the Arctic. Their Antarctic expedition with its associated
curriculum was quite popular in schools around the world. This expedition,
also, will feature an online curriculum and live chat with the explorers.
- Sept. 3, 2004 - Global
Warming Thaws Arctic, Divides Governments - Yahoo!
panel has established that the Arctic climate is warming rapidly now
and even more rapid changes are expected and that human activities
are partly responsible for this warming. But there is no agreement
among countries which border the Arctic region on how it should be
- August 30, 2004 - Laying
Claim To The North - Toronto Star
military is conducting military exercises and meeting with native
peoples throughout the North preparing to demonstrate Canada's sovereignty
over the Arctic.
- August 30, 2004 - Pioneer
On Pilgrimage To Kayak Birthplace - Scotsman
the man who developed the modern kayak, has traveled to Uummannaq
island, north of Greenland. He was able to meet the family of the
man who constructed the Inuit sealskin kayak he used as a model for
his modern version made of high-tech materials.
- August 27, 2004 - Toxins
Accumulate In Arctic Peoples, Animals - National Geographic
people and animals living in the Arctic have shown very high levels
of chemical contaminants in their bodies. Persistent Organic Pollutants
(POPs) from industrialized nations are infiltrating the food web.
- August 27, 2004 - History
Project Wraps Up In Taloyoak - CBC North
The Inuit Heritage
Trust has finished studying the area near Taloyoak where legend has
there was a slaughter of Inuit people by the Tunnit people long ago.
Taloyoak, previously known as Spence Bay.)
- August 25, 2004 - Ancient
Inuit Graves Discovered In Greenland - IOL
grounds of ancient Inuit have been located in Greenland. There are
the first such burial sites found in the high northern regions of
that country and probably date from the 13th century.
- August 25, 2004 - U.S.
Senators visit Arctic, Investigate Climate Change - ENN
have visited Svalbard to learn more about climate change in the Arctic
and to be briefed on the soon-to-be-released Arctic Climate Impact
Assessment. (Map and images
of Svalbard, Norway.)
- August 24, 2004 - Arctic
Team Finds Ship Remains - BBC
the ship, Victory, which was carrying Sir John Ross and Sir James
Clark Ross on their unsuccessful bid to find the Northwest Passage,
has been located by a British team retracing the explorers' route.
showing Felix Harbor where artifacts were found.)
- August 20, 2004 - Norwegian
Tanker To Be Escorted Out of Russia - Novosti
tanker, which entered Russian waters in the Barents Sea without permission,
will be escorted out by the Russian military.
- August 19, 2004 - Military
To Test Unmanned Surveillance Plane - Canoe
Canada is planning
to utilize UAVs to increase their ability to keep Canada's coastline
under surveillance. These drone aircraft will be under remote control.
The Canadian Government is planning on testing the first of these
aircraft in the next week.
- August 16, 2004 - Expedition
Leaves For Sunken Ship - Novosti
A Russian Expedition
has been launched to try to locate the Chelyuskin, a Soviet icebreaker
that sank in 1934 in the Chukchi Sea. (Map)
- August 13, 2004 - Arctic
Team Reaches Destination - BBC News
The team led
by Don Mee has successfully reached Thom Bay in the Arctic as they
retrace the steps of the John Ross expedition.
- August 12, 2004 - Paul
Martin Declares Canadian Sovereignty Over the Arctic - Canoe
to people about the possibility of a National Drug Plan in Canada,
Prime Minister Paul Martin twice repeated the statement, "The
world should understand this: that Canada does exercise sovereignty
over the North," and that military exercises by Canadian troops
in the area were appropriate. As global warming begins to open sea
lanes, the rights to this region become increasing important.
- August 8, 2004 - I
Needed A Challenge - BBC News
Not all adventurers
are 30 years old or younger. One challenger for Britain's most active
adventurer is a 60 year old woman who spent several months journeying
by yacht around the Arctic.
- August 8, 2004 - Drift-Ice
Research Unit..To Be Set Up... - Novosti
are sending a ship to study the Arctic environment from the atmosphere
to the depths of the oceans.The ship will serve as a station for two
years with a rotating roster of scientists.
- August 8, 2004 - Arctic
Soldiers Losing Skills - CNews
that many of their aboriginal soldiers no longer have the traditional
survival skills that have made them such an elite and dependable team
in the past.
- August 4, 2004 - Alert
Issued For Alaskan Oysters, Seafood - CBC North
seafood seems to be infected with a warm-water bacteria, and people
are warned not to eat RAW Alaskan seafood. This bacteria is normally
not seen in Alaskan waters but the summer's warmer-than-usual temperature
have allowed it flourish.
- August 4, 2004 - Copper,
Ivory Offer Glimpse Of High Arctic's Past - CBC North
Ten Inuit students
are helping excavate a Thule house near Repulse Bay and have found
harpoon heads, beads, and copper. Some of the objects are over 1,000
years old. (Interactive
map of Repulse Bay, Canada. Use the tool above the map to zoom
out to get a better overview or use the red square on the map of Canada
to the left as a reference.)
- August 3, 2004 - Arctic
Team Begins Epic Journey - BBC
the expedition of polar pioneers, Sir James Ross and his nephew Sir
James Clark Ross, is the goal of a team of seven British Explorers,
one of whom is a descendent of the latter explorer.The team is led
by Don Mee who unsuccessfully attempted to undertake this expedition
by himself last year.
- July 29, 2004 - Yellow
River Station Opens - China.org
River Station on Spitzbergen, China's first Arctic research station,
has opened and work has begun.
- July 17, 2004 - China
Prepares For Arctic Expedition - UPI
China has begun
an expedition that will result in their first research station in
the Arctic.The station will be located near the North Pole on Svalbard
- July 17, 2004 - Protecting
The Arctic From Oilmen - International Herald Tribune
A plan has
been announced to lease rights for oil and gas development in Teshekpuk
Lake, an important breeding ground for many Arctic birds and subsistence
area for the indigenous Inupiat who hunt and fish there. (Map
of the area - The lake is near the yellow-colored Beaufort Sea
- July 16, 2004 - Russian
Scientists Plan To Study Sunken Icebreaker - Novosti
announced that they will be using an underwater robot to study a Russian
icebreaker that sank in the Chukchi Sea in the 1930s. (Map
showing Chukchi Sea near Wrangel Island.)
- July 12, 2004 - Chest
Holds Arctic Mystery - Toronto Star
A group of
Inuit have discovered a locked chest and the graves of three unknown
individuals, near Baker Lake, Nunavut. Archaeologists and conservationists
plan to open the chest around August of this year.
- July 9, 2004 - Three
Democratic Senate Candidates Call For Opening ANWR - RigZone
candidates Brad Carson, Chris John and Tony Knowles have called for
"responsible development of the coastal plain" of the ANWR.
Experts feel this may bode well for energy policy in the next Congress.
- July 3, 2004 - Canada
Starts Seabed Mapping... - CBC
begun mapping the seabed in the Beaufort Sea, taking a step toward
establishing sovereignty under international law.At stake is control
of oil and gas reserves in the area.
- July 3, 2004 - Tiny
Arctic Shoreline Village Decides To ...Fight Erosion - Yahoo!
800 residents have decided to try to stem erosion threatening their
village on the Mackenzie Delta. Changes in climate have been accelerating
the erosion in recent years. (Similar
story of other villages in peril from Yahoo.)
- July 2, 2004 - Nine
New Sites Join World Heritage List - Scotsman
sites were among nine sites recently named to the World Heritage List.
One was Russia's Wrangle Island Reserve, a habitat for polar bear
and seals. The other is the Ilulissat Icefjord, on the west coast
of Greenland.This designation provides added protection for these
- July 1, 2004 - Explorer
Renews Arctic Challenge - BBC
Dom Mee, who
was trapped in the pack ice last year and forced to give up his expedition,
plans to again try to retrace the steps of Sir John Ross and reach
the harbors of Thom Bay. (Similar
story by The Scotsman with more about Sir John Ross.)
- June 8, 2004 - New
Theory of Early Human Migration Patterns - Pravda
have discovered an ancient mammoth site with carved bones and arrowheads
at the edge of the Arctic circle (66° N latitude). This shows
that humans inhabited this territory much earlier than previously
thought, according to the scientists.
- May 27, 2004 - Ice
Man Is Last Of Great Polar Explorers - Scotsman.com
Sir Wally Herbert,
now 70 years old, describes the first surface crossing of the Arctic
in 1969. This journey took 1.5 years and has not been repeated since
much of the ice has melted.
- May 25, 2004 - Russian,
US Scientists To Study Arctic Together - Russian Information Agency
A group from the University of Alaska and another
from the Russian Academy of Sciences have signed an agreement to study
the Pacific area of the Arctic together to look at the impact of rapid
- May 18, 2004 - British
Adventurer Youngest To Reach North Pole - CBC North
age 26, did not achieve all of his Arctic exploration dream, but has
become the youngest solo explorer to reach the North Pole.
- May 18, 2004 - Arctic
Runner's Plane Drama - BBC
in the North Pole Marathon had to dive off the runway as a plane came
in to land. They had been asked to stop to allow the plane to land,
but some just kept running resulting in the somewhat "close shave."
- May 13, 2004 - Inuit
'Poisoned From Afar' By Climate Change - New Zealand Herald
The head of
the Inuit Circumpolar Conference said that the Inuit are paying dearly
for the actions of people in other countries. Toxins and rising temperatures
are two of the challenges caused by pollution in the Arctic.
- April 28, 2004 - British
Man Scores Polar Success - BBC News
A British fireman
and his team of novices have reached the Geomagnetic North Pole. His
goal is to journey to all four North Poles over the next two years.
- April 21, 2004 - Ancient
Feathers Astound Researchers - CBC North
in Yukon alpine meadows several years ago exposed some bird feathers
attached to arrows or darts. Recent carbon-dating of these feathers
revealed them to be about 4,300 years old.
- April 21, 2004 - Polar
Team Out On Doctor's Advice - BBC
A British team,
racing from Canada to the North Pole, pulled out of the Arctic Challenge
because of severe frostbite to two of its members.
- April 21, 2004 - Scientist
Probes Mystery of Inuit Heart Defects - CBC North
are more likely to be born with heart defects than other babies. Scientists
are trying to determine if it is related to a lack of certain vitamins
in the Inuit diet.
- April 19, 2004 - Tourists
Ignoring Call To Boycott Alaska... - AZ Central
An animal rights
group is trying to revive a tourism boycott in order to put pressure
on the state to outlaw hunting of wolves from airplanes. So far the
plea seems to be unsuccessful.
- April 8,
2004 - China
To Build First Arctic Station In Norway - People's Daily
build its first Arctic research station on Spitzbergen Island, Norway.
Satellite observation will be a main focus once the station is built.
- April 7, 2004 - Trans-Arctic
Expedition Sets Off From Siberia - Russian Information Agency
team has set out to determine effects of global climate change on
plant and animal species across the Arctic. This expedition will use
new health-monitoring and transportation technology.
- April 2, 2004 - Yukon
Doubtful About Offshore ANWAR Drilling - North CBC
While the Alaskan
governor favors oil drilling off the shores of the Arctic National
Wildlife Refuge, the members of the Yukon government are not so sure
it is a good idea.
- Mar. 25, 2004 - Four
Nunavut Communities Want to Host Whale Hunt - CBC North
Inuit in Nunavut
have received permission for traditional hunting of a bowhead whale.
Several communities want to sponsor the hunt.
- Mar. 25, 2004 - Iceberg
Off Western Greenland Painted Red - Seattle Post Intelligence
Danish artist Marco Evaristti has painted one of the icebergs off
Greenland deep red using 780 gallons of meat dye.
- Mar. 24, 2004 - Reindeer
Herders Building Snowy Drive-In - The State (SC)
in Norway are building a snowmobile drive-in theater for the Eighth
Sami Film Festival, April 5-7.
- Mar. 23, 2004 - Dene
Leaders Plan Climate Change Awareness - CBC North
The new Dene
national chief, Noeline Villebrun, will try to inform the Canadian
government of how climate change is impacting the lives of the Athabaskan
people of the North.
- Mar. 21, 2004 - North
Pole Expedition Presumed Dead - The News
given up the search for North Pole adventurer Dominick Arduin, who
went missing March 6. Heat-seeking cameras have failed to find any
traces of her. She is believed to be dead.
- Mar. 17, 2004 - Missing
North Pole Explorer Probably Dead... - ABC
her support team, there is almost no chance of finding French-Finnish
explorer, Dominick Aruin alive after she disappeared 10 days ago trying
to reach the North Pole alone. One more rescue mission will be attempted.
- Mar. 14, 2004 - Supporters
Report Arctic Adventurer Missing - ABC
explorer, Dominick Arduin, has been reported missing by her support
team. A helicopter search has not turned up any sign of her nor has
the team heard from her for over a week. Arduin was attempting to
be the first woman to ski to the North Pole alone. (Earlier
article from the BBC.)
Iditarod Mushers Get Down To Business - Seattle PI
Sled Dog Race got underway today after the restart 25 miles north
of Anchorage where the snow conditions were better. The Iditarod
is now in its 32nd year.
Russian Rescuers Airlift Stranded Polar Scientists - New Zealand
have been evacuated from the remains of the Severny Polyus-32 station
to Spitzbergen, Norway. Their station was destroyed after a 12 foot
ice wall from a neighboring floe crashed down on them. The ice floe
where the station was situated was broken and several of their buildings
crushed, effectively stranding the scientists. (Update on this story
- Feb. 18, 2004 -
Traditional Inuit Ice Treks Guided From Space - Science Daily
Maps of ice
type and extent (Floe Edge maps) created from satellite data are proving
very helpful to the Inuit of Northern Canada in their annual quest
for fish and game.
- Feb. 17, 2004 -
Satellite Map Helps Track Quest Racers - CBC North
The Yukon Quest
dogsled race has gone high-tech, with the trail being put on satellite
maps and volunteers helping map it with GPS. (Follow
the race here.)
- Feb. 16, 2004 -
Consumption of Whale Meat Linked to Disruption In Children's Brain
Development - Environmental Investigation Agency
Levels of mercury
are high enough in whales and dolphin to be dangerous to children
who eat these foods. The mercury has been shown to cause damage to
the nervous system if ingested.
- Feb. 16, 2004 -
Trip To Pole Via Land and Water - BBC
To test the
limits of human endurance, Ben Saunders is planning to travel by ski
from Russia to the North Pole and from there to Canada. He plans to
pull supplies on a sledge for this trek over land, sea ice, and icy
water. (You can follow his journey here).
- Feb. 9, 2004 -
Climate Change Killed Neandertals - National Geographic
from several different nations have issued a study that uses a variety
of data to look at the demise of the Neandertals. Their conclusion
was that inability to adapt their hunting practices, as they were
forced to new hunting grounds by the changing climate, played a major
role in their disappearance.
- Feb. 4, 2004 -
Arctic Challenge for Northern Ireland Team - BBC
A team of four
men will try to break the world record for the fastest unsupported
trek to the North Pole.
- Jan. 28, 2004 -
Inuit Changed Arctic Ecosystem ... -CBC News
practices of prehistoric Inuit whalers dramatically changed an Arctic
pond ecosystem on Somerset Island, long before European settlers arrived
according to researchers who studied sediments and fossils from the
- Jan. 15, 2004 - China
to Open First Arctic Station - Xinhua News
is almost complete on the first research station built in the Arctic
by the Chinese. It should open in March and is located in Ny Alesund,
(Spitzbergen) Norway (78 55' N, 11 56' E).
- Jan. 2, 2004 - 'New
World' Link To Arctic Find - BBC
Stone Age artifacts
from northern Siberia show that humans were present in Arctic regions
as long as 16,000 years ago. This surprising finding includes portions
of spears made from mammoth ivory and the horn of the wooly rhino,
stone tools, and animal bones near the Yana River. (Similar
story at Seattle Times)
- Jan. 2, 2004 - Mad
Cow Scare Spreads to Alaska Dog Race - News.com
products scheduled to be used for dog food in an international sled-dog
race will not be used because of the fear that they might be contaminated
with the mad cow virus.The Canadian government notified organizers
of the race that dog food containing American meat products will not
be allowed across the border.
Archived News from 2003
2003 - Inuit
Battle To Shut US Air Base - BBC
Supreme Court has been asked to shut down a US Air Base in Thule
to enable a group of Inuit to return to their traditional hunting
on ruling- which basically says they deserve compensation, but
not the land.
14, 2003 - Officials
Monitor Rare Pneumonia Strain In Arctic - CBC North
in Quebec are keeping a close eye on cases of streptococcus pneumoniae,
serotype 1. The rates of infections are high in aboriginal populations
in Alaska and Northern Canada, in spite of a vaccination program.
2, 2003 - Scientists
Investigate Arctic Links to Europe - All Things Arctic
blue-eyed, fair-haired, bearded Inuit told by early explorers and
Inuit are being validated by saliva tests conducted by an Icelandic
anthropologist. The results will be released in October.
31, 2003 - Russian
Nuclear Sub Sinks, Nine Killed - New Zealand Herald
submarine being towed away for scrap sank during a storm, killing
nine of the crew members. Officials say the nuclear reactors, which
were shut down in 1989, pose no ecological threat.(Earlier story
2003 - Russia
Returns to Arctic - BBC news
set up a polar research camp, ~150 km. from the North Pole, after
an absence of 12 years. The current group of scientists will spend
6 months at the camp.
April 19, 2003 - Adventurer
Follows in Icy Footsteps...- Guardian Unlimited
and her team of eight members, will travel the route taken by the
doomed Franklin expedition to make people more aware of this explorer.
(Additional information from BBC News)
April 1, 2003 -Toxin
Threat to Inuit Food - BBC
diet of polar bear, seal, and whale is resulting in "unacceptable"
levels of man-made environmental toxins in the Inuit population in
Feb. 11, 2003 - Iditarod
Start Moving To Fairbanks - ESPN
It has been
decided to move the start of the Iditarod to Fairbanks rather than
cancel the race. There has been so little snowfall and such unseasonably
warm tempertatures in the Alaska range that it was not safe to start
in Anchorage as usual.
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