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Antarctic Explorers Timeline

Antarctic Expeditions of the Early 1900s
Year
Leader
Outcomes
Remarks
1901/1903
Mapped part of the Antarctic Peninsula. Discovered Crown Prince Gustaf canals, Scott Bay, Larsen Ice Shelf, fossils on Seymour. Overwintering in Hope Bay and on Paulet.
Sweden (Ship: Antarctic)
1901/1903 Drygalski Discovered Kaiser Wihelm II Land. Explored Heard Island and Kerguelen station. German (Ship: Gauß); Second vessel to overwinter intentionally in pack ice.
1901/1904 Scott Discovered King Edward VII Land. Established a station at Hut Point. Extensive land exploration across the plateau. Overwintered 2 years. England (Ship: Discovery);
1902/03 Colbeck Relief expedition for Scott England (Ship: Morning)
1902/1904 Bruce Discovered Coats Land and Caird Coast. First oceanographical exploration of Weddell Sea. Established station on Laurie for meteorological study. England (Ship: Scotia); Southernmost point = 22° W 74° 1' S
1903 Irizar Rescue of Nordenskjold expedition Argentina (Ship: Uruguay)
1903/04 Colbeck & Mackay Relief expedition for Scott England (Ships: Morning & Terra Nova)
1903/05 Charcot Claimed the Palmer Archipeligo and the Loubet Coast. Established station on Wandel Island. French (Ship: Français - this ship is actually the Belgica with a new name)
1904 Valette Established a station on Laurie Island. Argentina (Ship: Uruguay)
1904/05 Larsen Established first whaling station called Grytviken on South Georgia. Argentina-Norway (Ships: Fortune, Luisa, Rolf, & Guardia Nacional
1905/22 Galindez & Saborido Routine relief supplies carried by Argentine Navy to whaling stations on Laurie and Grytviken. Research on Deception Island and in the Gerlache Canal. Argentina (Ship Uruguay and after 1906 Austral - this is the renamed Français)
1905/06 Swinhoe

Exploration of South Georgia.

Chile - England (Ship: Consort)
1905/06 Lange First whaling factory ship in South Shetlands Norway (Ship: Admiralen)
1907/09 Shackelton Discovered Queen Maud Mountains. First ascension of Mt. Erebus. Reached Magnetic South Pole. Sledged to within 97 miles of Territorial South Pole. Claimed west side of the McMurdo station & Cape Royds. England (Ship: Nimrod)
1908 Larsen Exploration of South Sandwich Islands Norway (Ship: Undine)
1908 unknown Whaling station, Port Jeanne d'Arc, established on Keguelen. France-Norway
1908/09 du Baty Claimed the east coast of Kerguelen France (Ship: J.B. Charcot)
1908/10 Charcot Claimed Fallieres Land and Marguerite Bay. Discovered Charcot Land. Mapped Alexander Island. Established station on Petermann Island. France (Ship Pourquoi Pas?)
1909/11 Ring Claimed the south and west coast of Kerguelen France (Ship: Jeanne d'Arc)
1910 Owen Explored Crozet Island England (Ship: Sabine)
1910 Seymour Explored Prince Edward, Crozet, Heard, McDonald and Kerguelen. England (Ship: Wakefield)
1910/1911 Filchner Discovered Luitpold coast, and charted south shore of Weddell Sea; Discovered Filchner Ice Shelf. German (Ship: Deutschland)
1911 Evensten Explored Heard Island England-Norway (Ship Mangoro)
1910/12 Amundsen Reached South Pole Dec. 14, 1911. Discovered Queen Maud Land. Survey of Edward VII Land. Established Station Framheim. Did oceanographic research Norway (Ship: Fram)
1910/13 Scott Reached South Pole Jan. 17, 1912; but died on return trip. Discovered King Edward VII Land. England (Ship: Terra Nova)
1911/12 Shirase Landed on King Edward VII Land. Sledge travel of 257 km over Ross Ice Barrier to the SE. Discovered Kainan and Okuma Bay. Japan (Ship: Kainan Maru)
1911/12 Jörgensen First whaling station in South Orkneys. Survey of South Sandwich Islands. Norway (Ship: Thulla)
1911/14 Mawson Discovered and explored George V Land. Discovered Queen Mary Land. Surveyed Schackelton Shelf ice. Sledged to Magnetic South Pole. Oceanography work. Australia (Ship: Aurora)
1912   Norwegian station established on Deception Island. Norway
1912/13 Sõrlle Claims in the South Orkneys Norway (Ship: Palmer)
1913/14 Borge Claims in the South Orkneys Norway (Ship: Polynesia)
1913/14 du Baty Claimed Kerguelen France (Ship Curieuse)
 1913/15 Power & Tulloch Established meteorological station on Macquarie Island Australia
 1914/1916 Shackelton Discovered Caird Land. First attempted crossing of Anatarctica. Reopened station at Hut Point. England (Ship: Endurance)
 1915/1916 Peters Oceanographic work. Exploration of South Georgia and Bouvet USA (Ship: Carnegie)
 1916 Shackelton Relief expedition England (Ship: Southern Sky)
 1916 Shackelton Relief expedition Uruguay (Ship: Instituto de Pesca)
 1916 Shackelton Relief expedition England (Ship: Emma)
 1916 Villabón Relief expedition Chile (Ship: Yelcho)
1920 Hope Claims in South Georgia and Shag Rocks England (Ship: Dartmouth)
1920/22 Shackleton Exploration of Weddell Sea England (Ship: Quest)
1920/22 Cope Overwintered in Andvord Bay and west coast of Graham Land (the leader returned to England, but two members overwintered).  
1921   Norwegian whaling station established on Signy Island, South Orkneys  
1922/23 Peau Exploration of Kerguelen for biological research France (Ship: Oural)
1923 Vago Research in South Georgia Argentina (Ship: Guardia Nacional)
1923/24 Larsen First whaling expedition in Ross Sea. Landings on Ross Barrier and Macquarie Island Norway (Ships: James Clarke Ross and 5 whaleboats)
1925 Mackintosh Established marine laboratory in Grytviken Station. Continued until 1931.  
1925/26   Norway has first fish research (pelagic) expedition around Palmer Archipeligo and South Shetlands  
1925/27 Kemp Oceanographic study by South Georgia and South Shetlands. Explored of Bouvet Island and South Orkneys. England (Ship: Discovery)
1925/27 Spiess Oceanographic study by South Georgia and South Shetlands. Explored Bouvet. Germany (Ship: Meteor)
1926/27 Dumaresq Measurements of Kerguelen. France (Ship: Hamlet)
1926/27 Tofte Exploration of Peter I Island Norway (Ship: Odd I)
1926/27 Mercer Oceanographic and biological research by South Georgia England (Ship: William Enderby)
1927   South Orkneys claimed by Argentina due to routine supply routes for stations. Argentina (Ship: Guardia Nacional)
1927/28 Horntvedt Landed on Bouvet. Explored South Shetlands and Palmer Archipeligo. Oceanographic research. Norway (Ship; Norvegia)
1927/30 John Oceanographic research in Scotia Sea. Mapping. England (Ship: William Scoresby)
1928/29 Olstad Landed on Bouvet and Peter I Islands. Norway (Ship: Norvegia)
1928/29   Exploration of Bouvet Norway (Ship: Thorshammer)
1928/29 Kohl-Larsen Explored South Georgia. Claimed Gletschern. Geological Collection. Germany
1928/29 Wilkins Discovered the East coast of Graham Land. First airplane expedition in Antarctica. England (Ship: Hektoria);Southernmost point = 71° 20' S
1928/29 de la Rue Geological research on Kerguelen. Explored Heard Island. France (Ship: Austral)
1928/30 Bryd Extensive exploration by air. Discovered Marie Bryd Land, Sulzberger Bay, Rockefeller Mountains, Edsel-Ford Mountain. Nineteen hour flight over South Pole on Nov. 29, 1929. Established Little America Base on Ross Ice Shelf. USA (Ship: City of New York); First flight over Terrestrial South Pole.
1929 Melling Exploration of Crozet, Prince Edward and Kerguelen England (Ship: Deucallion)
1929/30 N. Larsen Built huts on Bouvet. Aerial survey.Explored Enderby Land. Discovered Crown Prince Olaf and Crown Princess Martha Lands Norway (Ship: Norvegia)
1929/30 Shannon Landed in Graham Land by Leroux Bay. Flew over Charcot Island. England (Ship: William Scoresby)
1929/31 Mawson Discovered MacRobertson Land, Banzare Coast, Princess Elizabeth Land. Explored Enderby Coast. Oceanographic work. Exploration of Kerguelen, Heard, Crozet. England-Australia (Ship: Discovery)
1929/31 Kemp & Carey Oceanographic work in the Falkland dependencies. Exploration of Bouvet. England (Ship: Discovery II.)

Go To: Explorations Timeline: 1930s


Information from:

70 South (2003). Antarctic Explorers. Online: http://www.70south.com/resources/history/explorers/

Antarctic Sun (1999). Like grandfathers, like grandson. Online: http://www.polar.org/antsun/oldissues99-2000/99_1031/ridley.html

Antarctica Online (1998). Antarctic history. Online: http://www.antarcticaonline.com/antarctica/history/history.htm

AWI (2002). History of Polar Research. Online: http://www.awi-bremerhaven.de/AWI/drygalski-e.html

Cameron, I. (1974). Antarctica: The last continent. London: Cassell & Company. pp. 243-247.

Carrol, P. (2003). The South Atlantic and subantarctic islands. Online: http://www.btinternet.com/%7Esa_sa/

Factmonster (2000). Antarctica: History of Exploration. Online: http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/world/A0856635.html

Kosack, H.P., (1955). Geographische Handbücher die Antarktis, Keysersche Heidelberg: Verlagbuchhandlung. pp.261-285

PBS Nova Online (2002). Shackleton's Voyage of Endurance. Online: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/shackleton/

Seattle P-I.com (1999). History of Antarctica. Online:http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/antarctica/about/history.shtml

South Pole.com (2003). Antarctic Explorers. Online. http://www.south-pole.com



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