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Polar Radar for Ice Sheet Measurements

   
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Antarctic Explorers Timeline

Antarctic Expeditions of the late 1800s
Year
Leader
Outcomes
Remarks
1853/54
Heard
Explored Heard Island
USA (Ship: Oriental)
1853/54 McDonald Discovered MacDonald Island England (Ship: Samarang)
1854/55     Unusually heavy ice concentration during these years.
1856 Rogers First landing on Heard Island USA (Ship: Corinthian)
1856/58 Rogers First overwintering on Heard Island USA (Ship: Zoe)
1859     Heavy electromagnetic disturbances in atmosphere
1872/76 Nares Oceanographic research off Prince Edward, Crozet, Kerguelen and Heard Islands. England (Ship: Challenger); Southernmost point = 77° E 66° 40'S (reported open seas)
1873/74 Dallmann Discovered Bismarck Strait and Kaiser Wilhelm Island Germany (Ship: Grônland); first steamer in southern polar region
1874 Reibnitz Explored Heard Island. Established station on Kerguelen. Germany (Ship: Arkona)
1874/75 Ryan Explored Crozet Islands. Established station on Kerguelen. USA (Ships: Swatara & Monongahela)
1874/75 de Perry Established station on Kerguelen. England (Ships: Volage & Supply)
1874/76 Schleinitz

Established staion on Kerguelen.

Explored Crozet Group.

Germany (Ship: Gazelle)
1876 Brine Explored Crozet Group. England (Ship: Wolverine)
1878 Williams Landed on Bouvet Island USA (Ship; Golden West)
1880 East Established depots (caches) on Crozet Group. England (Ship: Comus)
1880 Lynch Explored South Orkney Islands USA (Ship: Express)
1882 Church Sighted Bouvet Island USA (Ship: Delia Church)
 1882/83 Schrader Established station to mark International Polar Year on South Georgia Island. Germany (Ships: Moltke & Marie)
1887 ?? Established depots on Crozet France (Ship: Meurthe)
1892 Bruce Discovered Active Sound England (Ship: Balaena)
1892/93 Lieutard Occupied Kerguelen. Oceanographic study. France (Ship: Eure)
1892/93 Fairweather & Robertson Discovered active ??? Scotland (Ships: Balaena, Diana, Polarstar, & Active); whalers
1892/93 Larsen First discovery of plant fossils on Seymour. Discovered Foynhalbin Island. German-Norwegian: (Ship: Jason); whalers
1893 Fuller Sighted Bouvet Island USA (Ship: Francis Allen)
1893/94 Larsen Discovered Oskar II Land and Robertson Island Norway: (Ship: Jason); Southernmost point = 68° 10' S on the east coast of Graham Land (Palmer Peninsula)
1893/94 Evensen & Pederson Discoved canals between Biscoe Island and Graham Land Norway-Germany (Ships: Hertha & Castor) Southernmost point = 69° 10'S 76° 12' W.
1894/95 Kristensen First landing on Southern Contient on Cape Adare Norway (Ship: Antarctic)
1897/99 de Gerlache Discovered Liege, Brabant, Anvers, Danco Land and Belgica Strait. Belguim (Ship: Belgica); southernmost point = 33° W 71° 36' E. First overwintering and drifting in pack ice (accidental).
1898/99 Chun Oceanographic research. Exploration of Bouvet and Keguelen. Germany (Ship: Valdivia)
1899/1900 Borchgrevink Mapped coast of Victoria Land. Explored Robertson Bay, Admiralty Chain, Newnes Shelf Ice, & Wood Bay. First landing in Wal Bay. England-Norway (ship: Southern Cross); overwintered off Cape Adare (intentional). Southernmost point = 164° 32' W 78° 50' S

IGo To: Explorations Timeline: Early 1900s


Information from:

Cameron, I. (1974). Antarctica: The last continent. London: Cassell & Company. pp. 243-247.

Kosack, H.P., (1955). Geographische Handbücher die Antarktis, Keysersche Heidelberg: Verlagbuchhandlung. pp.261-285

South Pole.com (2003). Antarctic Explorers. Online. http://www.south-pole.com



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